Huanglongbing (HLB; “citrus greening disease”) is currently the biggest threat to the Florida citrus industry. HLB has caused declines in citrus production and has infected trees at a rate of 100%. Insecticides reduce Asian citrus psyllid, the pest that transmits HLB, but they don’t prevent more psyllids from moving into the planting, and they often kill the pest after transmission. This is why growers need non-insecticidal prevention options. One of these options is to apply kaolin particle films on trees to help manage psyllids.
Kaolin particle films cover the natural color of the plants, which is what ACP are attracted to. White kaolin was already known to reduce ACP, but this study tested whether red kaolin may also help mitigate ACP. ACP are attracted to the blue and ultraviolet light in the leaves and red was thought to further reduce this. We made the kaolin red by taking naturally white kaolin and mixing in a dye and a binding agent, resulting in a pinkish color.
This field study tested the effect red and white kaolin particles had on ACP pressure over the course of two years. The particles were added to the leaves of young non-bearing Hamlin trees. Another set of trees were treated with foliar insecticide and one control set received no treatments.
Overall, trees with red kaolin had the lowest number of ACP. Trees with white kaolin had less than the trees with foliar insecticide. The control trees had the most ACP. Important to note, none of the kaolin treatments completely prevented ACP from infecting trees but merely slowed the infection down. The onset was slower in red trees than white. These findings indicate that kaolin particle films may be an alternative pest management to foliar insecticides when it comes to reducing ACP and slowing HLB infection.
Here Monique Rivera, entomologist at UC Riverside, and Christopher Vincent, physiologist at UF, discuss using particle films in citrus management. At some point I make a particularly effusive gesture, and smack my fancy microphone and lose sound for a minute. What can I say physiology is just too exciting to keep my hands down!
Fasih Khalid came to CREC from Pakistan for a six-month program to work as a horticulturist focused on stress physiology. He also wanted to learn about physiological techniques and how to use different instruments. In Pakistan, he spent time working on abiotic stresses like water deficits and salinity. In our lab, he worked on experiments dealing with sap flow and hydraulic conductance. He said with the results the lab can determine whether “the sap flow movement is OK in relation to the regular irrigation.” Because of rising prevalence of water deficit problems in the world, it is important to see how irrigation levels in plants can be adjusted to save water and lead to more efficient water practices in the future.
Fasih loves research and learning. After his Master’s he spent about a month working in a farmer’s co-op in Pakistan, which he didn’t enjoy. As soon as an opportunity presented itself, he entered his PhD. He had done research on lychee in his Master’s and had published it, so he decided to go back to school and into the research field. After a couple of months in his PhD, he decided “…there is nothing in the world for me except research. I have to be researching.” He initially was interested in horticulture after going through his required two years of studying it in Pakistan. He thought he wanted to work in floriculture and landscaping but ultimately found pomology to be the most engaging because there are many different opportunities in that field. Plus, “The good thing of fruit is you can research or if you don’t want to research you can eat.”
During his time at CREC, he was also able to participate in several competitions, most of which were academic, though one was a t-shirt design contest for CREC, which he won! The academic competitions allowed Fasih to share the work he did at CREC, as well as help him improve his English. He liked to share that his work is important because it helps growers understand how to adapt to a world with climate change. He believes it is important for all people, not just growers, to care about changing water conditions and how this affects plants because “…we have to save water for the world and for the plants, for the next [plants].” If growers are unable to find solutions for their plants in water scarce conditions, this will cause further problems for the world as demand for fresh water reserves increases, eventually affecting our food supply, which would affect us all. He wants to take the things he’s learned during his time here back to Pakistan. His two big takeaways were time efficiency and the benefits of using hydraulics instrumentation for research. He hopes to apply these lessons as he continues horticulture research in the future.
Talent Vharachumu was an undergraduate intern who is originally from Zimbabwe and attends university in Costa Rica. She is studying agricultural sciences and has become particularly interested in plant physiology, especially due to her time at the lab. Along with the work Talent did for the physiology lab, as is typical for an intern, she sometimes participated in work with other labs as well. She enjoyed this because it allowed her to learn many different things and meet more people. She hopes to be able to return to the lab to complete her masters.
She enjoyed her work at the lab because she learned more about plant physiology. Our goal at the tree physiology lab is to improve general tree health and make strides in understanding tree physiology better and more completely. To accomplish this goal, we do research with a whole plant approach. One such experiment is on how different plants respond to and are affected by heat.
Talent primarily worked on that experiment. She would collect leaves from a variety of trees in a variety of genotypes and perform a procedure on them to test how they tolerate the different temperatures. To do the experiment she used a machine that punches a piece of the leaf out, then placed the piece on a black disk that went inside a Ziplock bag, which was then placed in a container of water for 30 minutes. Then she’d record the chlorophyll fluorescence (photosynthetic energy conversion) of the leaves, given from a machine called the Fluoremeter. She also worked on another project with an infrared gas analyzer (Li-6800) machine to measure photosynthesis, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence.
When I asked Talent why she believes this work is important and why she thinks people should care about it she explained that the data she’s gathering helps us better understand the way climate change is affecting the planet, different environments, and plants in general. People who work in agriculture can use the data about which plants tolerate heat better to determine which genotypes to grow, which hopefully will increase plant yield and agricultural efficiency as temperatures warm. Talent also said it “…can help them reduce losses from low production due to high temperatures that are being caused by global warming.” This is useful because it allows growers to make informed decisions about what kinds of crops to plant as the climate and planet continue to change. I asked specifically what she would say to people who think they don’t have a reason to care about plants and she said, “They don’t care about plants, but they care about eating.”